More than 1,000 Russians – including Olympic medallists – benefited from a state-sponsored doping programme between 2011 and 2015, a report claims.
At least 30 sports including football covered up samples, the report says.
“It was a cover-up that evolved from uncontrolled chaos to an institutionalised and disciplined medal-winning conspiracy,” says the report’s author, Richard McLaren.
Lawyer McLaren said London 2012 was “corrupted on an unprecedented scale”.
The report also implicates medallists at the 2013 World Championships in Moscow and the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.
According to the report, salt and coffee were used to manipulate Russian samples.
The report added that the system was refined over the course of the 2012 Olympics, 2013 Worlds and the Winter Olympics to protect likely Russian medal winners.
Russia won 72 medals at the London Games, 21 of which were gold and 33 medals at Sochi, 13 of which were gold.